A Circular Economy Framework based on Organic Wastes Upcycling for Biodiesel Production from <i>Hermetia illucens</i>
Keywords:biodiesel, organic waste, H. illucens larvae, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)
The present waste management practices have adverse environmental impacts at the same time costly. Approximately, 80 % of the Malaysian municipal wastes including organic wastes are usual disposed into landfills. Hence, transformation organic wastes not only providing economic and environmental benefits but has given waste a value. This study focused on synthesis of biodiesel from H. illucens pre-pupae fed with fruit waste and food waste. The objective was to evaluate interactions between the variables including catalyst loading, reaction time versus fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield (wt %), temperature and methanol to sample mass ratio. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the bioconversion optimization process. Optimal biodiesel yield based on fruit waste achieved was 96.15 % at 51ºC; 8.3:1 methanol: mass ratio; 253 min and 15.1 % catalyst. Furthermore, the optimal yield obtained from the second set of optimization using lipids of pre-pupae derived from food waste was achieved at 94.63 %. The optimum conditions for reaction temperature was 71°C, with methanol to mass ratio of 6.8:1, at reaction time of 254 min and catalyst loading of 7.0 v/v%. The properties of FAME produced were in accordance with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards.
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