Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of C-doped TiO<sub>2</sub> under Visible Light Irradiation: A Comparison of Corn Starch, Honey, and Polyethylene Glycol as a Carbon Sources
Keywords:C-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, methylene blue degradation under visible light region, ultrasonic–assisted sol–gel method, corn starch, honey, PEG1500
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) represents an effective photocatalyst for removal of polluted water; however, it has a limitation of active under small part of ultraviolet light region from sun spectrum. Herein, reported the carbon doping TiO2 (C-doped TiO2) by using various carbon sources such as corn starch, honey, and polyethylene glycol, for improving the electronic and photocatalytic properties of TiO2. The responsed visible light photocatalysis was synthesized via the ultrasonic–assisted sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and UV−vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the photocatalytic C-doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles have the narrowest band gap down to 2.71 eV with increase the carbon doping up to 2.0% by weight from corn starch as external carbon source. XPS result reveals carbon substitution of titanium positions in the anatase TiO2 structure and also to precipitate at the surface of TiO2. As compared photodegradation efficiency under ultraviolet light, observed 87 %MB maximum photoremoval in neutral aqueous solution within 1 hour reaction time under visible light irradiation. While doping with other carbon sources, C-doped anatase TiO2 showed low photocatalytic activity. Hence, great strategy of wastewater treatment application in large scale pilot plant, selected low cost of corn starch acted as an external carbon source for promoted an excellent visible light nano-anatase TiO2 photocatalytic immobilization on the modified glass supporter throughout adhesive waterproof glue.
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