Design of an Acoustic-Based Nondestructive Test (NDT) Instrument to Predict the Modulus of Elasticity of Wood
Keywords:nondestructive test, longitudinal stress wave, instrumentation, wood, modulus of elasticity
Modulus of elasticity (E) can predict the mechanical characteristics, as well as grade the quality of wood. The Destructive Test (DT) method is the more commonly used, where the wood sample is split up when being tested. This research used the NDT method based on the longitudinal stress wave method (LSWM) whilst utilizing handheld instruments. The calculated E-dynamic (Ed) from the NDT method was compared with the E-static (Es) from the DT method to validate the technique. Six different wood types were tested with ten samples of each kind. An average R-value of 0.898 was obtained, indicating a high correlation between the Ed values and Es values. The LSWM method requires reliable hardware and software to record the impulse response. It starts by hitting the wood with a hammer to create an impulse, finding the resonance frequency (f0), and later calculating the Ed. A more practical and easy-to-use handheld mobile instrument was developed using a Raspberry Pi-2 microcomputer as the signal processor, an LCD touchscreen, a USB soundcard, and a dynamic microphone that covers 0.1-5kHz and -64 ± 3dB. An internal telecommunication system is provided to support measurements conducted at lumber mills. The software includes band-pass filtering of the recorded spectrum where the f0 is depicted. A time-domain envelope fitting is then applied to the filtered spectrum to obtain the R2envelope. A low R2envelope value indicates an inadequate impulse response, and therefore, the test should be redone
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