Improvement of Pulp and Paper Mill Industries Effluent Quality Using Bagasse Fly Ash
Color removal from pulp and paper mill wastewater by using fly ash was one of the effective and low-cost methodologies to improve the quality of the wastewater. The fly ash had the capability to remove various organic pollutants, such as Lignin, Tannins, Humic, and Fulvic, from wastewater. These organic pollutants contribute to the color intensity of industrial effluent. The research examined the removal capability of fly ash including Bagasse fly ash, Rice husk ash and Lignite fly ash. The samplings were analyzed in the laboratory for color removal capability. The test was divided into 3 steps as follows: Step 1 the comparison of color removal efficiency by using 3 types of fly ashes; Bagasse fly ash, Lignite fly ash and Rice Husk ash. Step 2: Analyzing the functional group of fly ashes before and after color removal by using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to determine the adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors. Step 3: Color removal efficiency by sand filter experiment. The results showed that; Step 1: Bagasse fly ash, Rice husk ash and Lignite fly ash were effective in color removal of 94.2, 74.8 and 71.8 percent at 30 minutes, 24 hours and 4 days, respectively. The pH of the effluent using Bagasse fly ash was constant to 7.5 - 8 and tend to be constant although the ash amount increased, while the pH of Lignite fly ash was in the range of 8 - 9 and tend to increase when amount increased. Step 2: Analyzing the functional group of Bagasse fly ash using the FT-IR found that after using Bagasse fly ash for color removal in the effluent, the graph tends to decrease. Step 3: The result showed that the efficiency of color removal of the sand filter by soil mixed with Bagasse fly ash at ratio 1: 0 - 1:10 (Soil : Bagasse fly ash), which the efficiency of color removal tends to increase with the maximum of 93 % and the minimum of 16% at ratio 1:7 and 1:0, respectively.