Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Commercially Pure Sn and Sn-4%Bi Alloys Fabricated by Permanent Mold Gravity Casting and Forging
The influences of 4 wt% bismuth addition and room temperature strain on microstructure and mechanical properties in tin alloys were investigated in this study. Commercially pure tin and Sn-4%Bi alloys were fabricated by permanent mold gravity casting. The samples were then subjected to forging process at room temperature. As-cast microstructures were compared with 0.25 and 0.5 strained samples. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to confirm the effect of bismuth on undercooling. The recrystallization and grain growth processes were confirmed by grain size distribution and misorientation study using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). Furthermore, position and morphology of the bismuth precipitates were investigated by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that tin oxide was the main species found on the surface of these alloys. There was no evidence of bismuth oxide on the surface. Furthermore, the Hall-Petch hardness approximation analysis revealed that there were other influences, which increased the hardness beyond the grain refinement effect.