Synthesis of Mesoporous TiO<sub>2</sub> with a Template Free One Step Reaction of Acid-Catalyzed TiC
Mesoporoustitania (TiO2) having high specific surface areas of 163 to 306 m2/g was prepared by a template-free one step reaction between TiC precursor and aqueous nitric acid (HNO3) solution. The effects of reaction parameters including acid concentration, reaction time and temperature were investigated. The properties of the prepared TiO2 induced by those parameters were characterized by various techniques such as thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the TiC was completely oxidized to TiO2 at reaction time of 8 h, 70°C with 5 M HNO3. At this condition, the obtained TiO2 composed a mixed phase of 45% anatase and 55% rutile and showed the highest pore volume of 0.239 cm3/g with specific surface area of 306 m2/g. Moreover, all the anatase was transformed into the rutile when the reaction time reached 48 h. The rates of the rutile transformation increased with increasing the acid concentrations but decreased with increasing the reaction temperatures. The pore volumes and the specific surface areas were reduced by increasing the acid concentrations or the reaction temperatures. It is possibly because at the conditions of the high acid concentrations or the high temperatures, the mesoporous framework of TiO2 was collapsed. Based on the acid conditions, a peptization process was adopted to describe the effects of all investigated parameters.