Extraction of Phytochemicals from Grains of Paradise Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) is one of the green methods to extract plant matters substances. In this study, SCCO2 has been applied as a media to extract the grains of paradise seeds substances at temperatures of 40 – 80 oC and pressures of 20 – 40 MPa using a semi–continuous flow–type system. Results of FT–IR spectra analysis showed that the grains of paradise seeds substances were extracted by SCCO2. The SEM images of the grains of paradise seeds residues also showed that the physical changes of the grains of paradise seeds surface occurred after SCCO2 extraction. The main compounds in extracts were gingerols, shogaols, and paradols. However, the GC–MS may only identify paradol compounds due to gingerols, shogaols, and paradols are homologous series of phenolic ketones and paradols was more stable than gingerols and shogaols. The yields of gingerols, shogaols, and paradols were 9.12, 3.90, and 4.42 mg/g sample, respectively and affected by extraction temperatures and/or extraction pressures.